Internet of things: Wearable Technology

IOT (Internet of Things)

“IOT stands for the connection of usually trivial material objects to the internet” (Mitew, p.5)


The Internet of Things has outstandingly altered the relationship shared between humans and objects through augmenting material settings with ambient data. An objects ability to become tangibly sociable is now dramatically easy through the outgoing growth in the network paradigm.

A digitally engaged object has the capability to register and apply itself to its surrounding environment, as well as initiating action between the situation and the user.

The term ‘The Quantified Self’ relates to the incorporation of technology data acquisition on a person’s daily life in terms of inputs and performance (Lupton, 2013, p.26).

Wearable technology is becoming much more prevalent in today’s society. This is going beyond the ‘Apple Watch’ and ‘Fitbit’ and instead looking at Heart Monitor reading Socks for newborn babies, and Golfing Polo Shirts installed with weather and UV rating monitors.

These digital objects require the user interface to be present and available by being obtrusive to the garment at all times (McCann & Bryson, 2009, p.5). Overall wearable technology provides major benefits to an individual through the succour and assistance it provides the user in real time.

Remediation

 

Reference List:

 Lupton, D., 2013, ‘Understanding the human machine’, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, Vol. 32, no.4, p.26, <https://moodle.uowplatform.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1382532/mod_resource/content/1/Lupton%2C%20D.%20-%20Understanding%20the%20human%20machine.pdf>

McCann, J, Bryson, D 2009, Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology’, Woodhead Publishing in Textiles, no..83, p.5, <https://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HsikAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=wearable+technology&ots=ukEZ2zJ9Y3&sig=k8xJSWEejif9eNDrWYPQkKKy3LU#v=onepage&q=wearable%20technology&f=false>

Mitew, T, ‘Do Objects Dream of an Internet of Things?’, The Fibreculture Journal, no.23, p.5,  <https://moodle.uowplatform.edu.au/pluginfile.php/1382530/mod_resource/content/0/Do%20Objects%20Dream%20of%20an%20Internet%20of%20Things.pdf>

Sawh, M 2018, image, viewed 14 October,  <https://www.wareable.com/smart-clothing/best-smart-clothing>

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Mastermind behind Organised Online Crime

The internet has completely altered the world of organized crime. Crime is no longer classified ‘Brick and Mortar’ and instead recognised through online mediums. The simple task of organized crime online is preposterous. Cybercriminals can easily pool resources and work together to engage in repulsive crimes. The online criminal landscape is an environment where “criminals form supply chain relationships just like businesses”(Mayer, 2016).

Organised Cybercrime is referred to as the modern day ‘Mafia’. This Mafia consists of a ‘Cyber Ring’. Craig Badrick has determined the multiple roles of the Cyber Ring in his article ‘How Organized Cybercrime Works’ (Badrick, 2018). Badrick initially identifies the role of the organizational ‘Leader’ who plans the cyberattacks, followed by the ‘in-house programmers’ who develop the malicious software cybercrimes which evade detection. The Cyber Ring also involves a ‘Financial Specialist’ who detect how much the stolen, or invaded content is worth, as well as ‘Intrusion Specialists’, who maintain the attack on the nodes computer for as long as possible.

Dobby Hack.jpg

Remediation: Highlighting the role of the ‘Leader’ in the Cyber Ring.

For example, a renowned organised cybercrime mafia is ‘LulzSec’. LulzSec targeted and hacked ‘Fox.com’ after the domain described a rapper as “vile” on air. LulzSec managed to leak 73,000 X Factor contestants from the US in this cybercrime (Arthur, C 2013). The organizational methods of LulzSec is an integral part of their crimes success as the members of this mafia never met in real life and instead just recognise each other by their social media handles.

 

Reference List:

Arthur, C 2013, ‘LulzSec: what they did, who they were and how they were caught’, The Guardian, 17 May, viewed 12 October, <https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/may/16/lulzsec-hacking-fbi-jail>

Badrick, C 2018, ‘How Organized Cybercrime Works’, Turn Key Technologies, 7 February, viewed 12 October, <http://www.turn-keytechnologies.com/blog/network-solutions/how-organized-cybercrime-works>

Mayer, B 2016, ‘Cybercrime is the Modern Day Mafia’, Forbes, 16 October, viewed 12 October, <https://www.forbes.com/sites/tonybradley/2015/10/16/cybercrime-is-the-modern-day-mafia/#39a077845396>

Wikipedia, 2018, image, viewed 13 October, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fox_Broadcasting_Company>

 

WikiLeaks the greatest information institution

“for four years now, Wikileaks has been the world’s most blatant, most publicly praised, encrypted underground site” (Sterling, B. 2013)

WikiLeaks is an online organisation which is currently holding more than one hundred legal threats from its main purpose of publishing secret information which is provided by anonymous sources (Khatchadourian, R, 2010). The domain does not call for radical transparency but instead has the mission of transforming institutional power to become “open” (Sirfry, M 2011, p.10).

Founded by Julian Assange, WikiLeaks is a classic example of Hacktivism through its labelling as a media insurgency (rebellion against authority) which integrates competition between an individual and an institution. The steady and continuous flow of confidential materials WikiLeaks has adopted makes administration, politicians, and media commentators alarmed with vitriol as it identifies the networked fourth estate in a multidimensional system of expression and restraint (Benkler, Y, 2011, p.2). The platform climaxes the online networks need to resolve the potential vulnerability that private infrastructure may encounter, without being exposed by the constraints of legality, and governmental censorship (Benkler, Y, 2011, pp.67-68).

 

Use this link to check out 10 of the most famous leaks, recognised as damning as they were sensational…

http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/completelist/0,29569,2006558,00.html

 

Hacktivism combines the application of hacking information technologies and political action (Ludlow, P 2010). Hacktivism mutually involves the capturing of secret information and safeguarding the privacy of ordinary citizens through military-grade encryption (predominately shaped by Cypberpunks).

WikiLeaks is a collaborated network of thousands of motivated individuals who share the hacktivist culture and ethic.


Remediation highlights 6 of the most controversial WikiLeaks through a video I have posted on YouTube. 

Reference List:

Benkler, Y, 2011, ‘A free irresponsible press: Wikileaks and the battle over the soul of the networked fourth estate’, viewed 27 September, pp. 1-69

Khatchadourian, R, 2010, ‘No Secrets: Julian Assange’s mission for total transparency’’, The New Yorke, 7 June, viewed 27 September

Ludlow, P 2010, WikiLeaks and Hacktivist Culture, The Nation, 15 September, viewed 28 September, <https://www.thenation.com/article/wikileaks-and-hacktivist-culture/>

Sifry, M 2011, WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency, OR Books, p.10

Sterling, B. 2013, The Ecuadorian Library or, The Blast Shack After Three Years, Medium, 2 August, viewed 27 September, <https://medium.com/@bruces/the-blast-shack-f745f5fbeb1c>

 

 

 

Social Media and Politics

What is the first thing you think of when you hear ‘Social Media and Politics’…

DONALD TRUMP


Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have dramatically changed the prevalence of politician use of social media. These recognisable figures are now more accountable and accessible to the public sphere. Social media sanctions visibility to the universe making it simple for politicians to broadcast an individual message in a rapid manner.

“A network of Peripheries”

This quote directly sanctions the paradigm of politics in the media by the opportunity to receive quick responses from nodes, and break the expected clutter by posting scandalous posts which stretch the limits of ethical practice.

@realDonaldTrump

“@FrankLuntz is a low class slob who came to my office looking for consulting work and I had zero interest. Now he picks anti-Trump panels!”

Screen Shot 2018-09-19 at 2.47.55 pm.png

Trumps’s scandalous tweet was retweeted nearly 2000 times and received 3100 likes.


Donald Trump used Twitter tremendously in his 2016 presidential campaign. He states

“I like it because I can get also my point of view out there, and my point of view is very important to a lot of people that are looking at me,” (Murse, T 2018)

 

Remediation: Our Beloved @realDonaldTrump

My remediation reflects Donald Trump as I believe he has become the most recognised politician of our time through the use of media. Trump utilises Twitter in a scandalous manner to encourage discussion within society.


Malcom Gladwell recognises that the “internet can be an effective tool for political change when used by grassroot organisations” (e.g. Politicians) as opposed to atomised individuals (Morozow, E 2011). Gladwell’s statement accentuates the exposure social media allows politicians to have, relative to that of the general public.

 

Reference List:

Morozow, E 2011, ‘Facebook and Twitter are just places revolutionaries go’, The Guardian, Weblog post, 8 March, viewed 18 September, <https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/07/facebook-twitter-revolutionaries-cyber-utopians>

Murse, T 2018, ‘How Social Media Has Changed Politics’, ThoughtCo, weblog post, 1 2018, viewed 18 September, <https://www.thoughtco.com/how-social-media-has-changed-politics-3367534>

Life as a Waitress

As of the middle of last year, I began my casual job at Michel’s Patisserie. The first 3 weeks at this job was quite complicated as I found myself learning new skills likewise any new employee does at a new job.

Image result for michel's patisserie

Patisserie, Michel’s 2018

As I began to get the hang of things I was given the opportunity to observe customers behaviours through their purchases and regularity. Analysing my workplace with an ethnographic approach has yielded clarifications around the role of labour force, regular customers, customer behaviours, and organizational characteristics (Hodson, R 2004 p.31).

Typically I am rostered on for 3 days of work a week, predominately starting at 6am and finishing at 1.30pm. In turn, I am regularly faced with customers who make it a part of their daily routine to come to Michel’s Patisserie to purchase their daily coffee fix.

As I started recognising familiar faces I began to distinguish coffee orders with the customers identity. I now consider myself a pro at taking orders as a majority of the time when I see a regular customer walk into the café I put their order through before they have even approached the counter to pay. My job as a waitress has strengthened my memory through my ability to register particular orders with specific customers. This ethnographic practice is recognising customer behaviour and habits through making their café experience more convenient as their order waiting time is decreased.

Recognising regular customers is a habitual characteristic I now implement everytime I work at Michel’s Patisserie. Observing the customers orders benefit both the barista with more time to make the order, and the customer by allowing them to receive their order quicker.

“The workplace is the unique location where the employer can acquire this information and where he can follow up the behaviour and activities of the persons indebted to him” (Neve G.D. 2001)

This quote fundamentally corresponds to the way I have learnt customer orders through the assistance of my fellow employees. When I first started this job my fellow employees use to disclose when a regular customer would come in, alongside trying to teach me their order.

Essentially, working in the hospitality industry has taught me the importance of attitude and behaviour when dealing with customers. Furthermore, I have discovered the significance of an individual’s daily routine and a large number of people who strictly abide by their habits in their everyday lives.

 

Reference List:

Hodson, R 2004, ‘A Meta-Analysis of Workplace Ethnographies’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, vol.33, no.1, p.31

Patisserie, Michel’s 2018, Michel’s Patisserie, image, viewed 15 september,m<https://www.michels.com.au/>

Neve G.D. 2001, ‘Towards an Ethnography of the Workplace: Hierarchy, Authority and Sociability on the South Indian textile shop floor’, Sage Publications, vol.21, no.2, p.139

The Empowerment of Citizen Journalism

“Media can’t be everywhere, but there is something with a citizen telling their own story from their own perspective which can be very valuable.”

Jeff Achen


Jeff Achen’s proposition directly examines the power of citizen journalism as a result of a rise in social media. Citizen journalism has been made simple for nodes through programs such as ‘Periscope’ on Twitter and ‘Facebook Live’.

https://www.pscp.tv/ (Periscope)

https://live.fb.com/ (Facebook Live)

Citizen Journalism can be defined as “the reporting of news events by members of the public using the Internet to spread the information.” (Techopedia, 2018)

The practice of Citizen Journalism can be recognised as filling the gaps between real journalists and the public. Citizen Journalism strengthens democracy through embracing the coverage that professional journalists may have missed, offering the public a more complete overview of happenings (Fonseca, O, 2017). In relation to the concept of ‘Legacy Media’ the implementation of Citizen Journalism is perceived as an aggregate of the abundance of citizen broadcasting online. Ted acknowledges the value of aggregated information on platforms such as Twitter and Facebook as a ‘bridge of pebbles’, through the large assortment of news which invites user participation.

Remediation: Showcasing the aggregated flow of individual contributors, and the platforms they can utilise (Facebook, Twitter)

Overall, society is seeing a change in news production through the access, aggregation, and curation of UGC (User Generated Content). This free ‘content environment’ idolises curators and aggregators, making them the key to the value of Citizen Journalism. This is justified in Stuart Allan’s (Head of the School of Journalism) statement, Citizen journalists are now part of the news landscape, offering new voices, different perspectives, and first-hand accounts”(2017).


Reference List:
Achen, J 2016, ‘New social media tools empower citizen journalism’, Phys Org, viewed 11 September, <https://phys.org/news/2016-07-social-media-tools-empower-citizen.html>

Allan, S 2017, ‘Citizen Journalism: A phenomenon that is here to stay’, EuroScientist, Article, 13 July, viewed 11 September’, <https://www.euroscientist.com/citizen-journalism-phenomenon-stay/>

Fonseca, O 2017, Citizen Journalism Today, Medium, weblog post, 12 November, viewed 11 September, <https://medium.com/journalism-trends-technologies/citizen-journalism-today-9de6089c3419>

Techopedia, 2018, Citizen Journalism, Techopedia, viewed 11 September, <https://www.techopedia.com/definition/2386/citizen-journalism>

Google’s Open Source Reputation

There are two qualities which conduct how a webpage is controlled; these being if the page is an Open or a Closed Source. A huge attribute impacting the way Google approached it’s software development was ‘The Open Source Movement’. An open source promotes development and connectivity, by championing freedom for software developers through education, collaboration, and infrastructure (Open Source, 2017). American computer programmer Andy Rubin proposes in an interview with Daniel Roth that Android would be a “global, open operating system for the wireless future” (2008).  Rubin hoped to assist the development of a software that was a ‘free, open source mobile platform that any coder could write for and any handset maker could install’ (Roth, D 2008).

glitch-2018-09-07T01_41_37.598Z

Glitch Art

The open source initiative permits the opportunity for education and collaboration across a global scope of constituencies in the open source community.

“Google has a long history of engaging in open source communities,” (Novotny, S 2018)

In today’s technologic society the ability to collaborate is key to discovering a key competitive advantage. Hence, Google’s main competitor ‘Apple’ who are renowned for their closed source programming.

I strongly believe there are two technology buyers, these being:

  • Those who desire the ability to explore and expand their offerings within the software (Android users)
  • Those who do not consider the control of their product and utilise it for its singular offerings (Apple users)

https://www.thesun.co.uk/tech/6543038/iphone-or-android-phones-which-best-difference/

This link goes into depth on the advantages and disadvantages of these software varieties. 

Remediation

Remediation: Highlights the openness and control Android users have when utilising this technological software. 


Therefore , a device that is powerful, easy to use, and secure can be recognised as Apple which is reinforced in the statement “Users no longer own or control the apps they run – they merely rent them minute by minute” (Zittrain, 2010). Whereas Android draws to nodes who tinker with their purchases by adding to their software, and allowing them to have total control over how the device runs.

 

Reference List

Novotny, S 2018, ‘How Google decides to open source its technology’, ComputerWorld, 6 August, viewed 6 September, < https://www.computerworld.com.au/article/644791/how-google-decides-open-source-its-technology/>

Open source, 2017, Open Source Initiative, and Open Source Software Movement Celebrate Twenty Years, Open source, 23 September, viewed 6 September, <https://opensource.org/node/905>

Roth, D 2008, ‘Google’s Open Source Android OS Will Free the Wireless Web’, Wired, viewed 22 September, <https://www.wired.com/2008/06/ff-android/?currentPage=all>

Zittrain, J, 2010, ‘A fight over freedom at Apple’s core’. Financial Times, February 3, viewed 22 September, <https://www.ft.com/content/fcabc720-10fb-11df-9a9e-00144feab49a?mhq5j=e3>

Delusional Translation

Facebook offers a means of interaction and communication for its users, giving them a sense of belonging. The social media platform underlines the term ‘self-expression’ giving users the ability to customise their personal profile page to cater for their own security needs. Facebook is rapidly turning into one of the most popular tools for social communication (Ross et al, 2009), hence my explanation of my personal experiences of miscommunication in this blog post.

Being half South American a predominant amount of my family live in Uruguay. Besides the fact that Uruguay is less developed than Australia, a majority of my extended family members have a Facebook account and therefore I have befriended quite a few of these accounts. The connection I share with these family members all rely on google translator. As much as I desire to learn Spanish I haven’t found the time to.

Examples of the Spanish to English translation of my family members comments.

 

Right now I only understand the basics:

  • Agua (water)
  • Leche (milk)
  • Cómo estás (how are you)
  • Gracias (thank you)

NOT VERY IMPRESSIVE I KNOW…

I quite frequently receive Facebook notifications of things like ‘(enter family members name) has added something to your timeline’. Clicking on the notification, a majority of the time I translate it into something which is quite humorous.

Even though the translation through our communication efforts commonly fails I can generally grasp what is trying to be said. I appreciate the want for connection with my overseas family and embrace it greatly.


David Russel has conducted research on Facebook’s connectiveness, stating “even indirect actions foster a sense of connectedness between users”(2012). Russel’s statement is proven through my experience with the initiative my overseas family make. The actions of tagging and commenting on photos is recognised as an indirect enterprise. Facebook’s ubiquitous nature make it a simple tool to communicate without overseas barriers.

Facebook connects the world in a way it has never been connected before, allowing users to learn the atrocities occurring worldwide and permitting them to support these movements across boundaries (Menon, K). Facebook today is a fundamental resource for interpersonal communication aiding my own, as well as a great minority of societies ability to interact with extended family.

 

Reference List:

Menon, K ,Social Media as a Powerful New Communication Tool, Media Magazine, viewed 4 September, <https://mediamagazine.in/content/social-media-powerful-new-communication-tool>

Pereya, M 2016, Facebook, image, <https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=976490699105887&set=a.101830186571947&type=3&theater>

Ross, C, Orr, E, Sisic, M, Arseneault, M, Simmering, G, & Orr, R 2009, Personality and motivations associated with Facebook use, Computers in Human Behavior, vol 25, pp.578-586

Russel, D 2012, Can Facebook Be Used to Maintain Meaningful Social Relationships?, Psychology Today, weblog post, January 4, viewed 3 September, <https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/distress-in-context/201201/can-facebook-be-used-maintain-meaningful-social-relationships>

Verjoustinsky, B 2017, Facebook, image, <https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1425752270846392&set=a.101830186571947&type=3&theater>

 

 

Walled Gardens creating a clash between Social Media Platforms

A ‘Walled Garden’ refers to the environment in the open realm of the internet which nodes are restricted to view certain content and allowed to navigate only particular areas of websites (techopedia, 2018).

Here’s a short summary video explaining the concept ‘Walled Garden’

“When users feel too restricted, too manipulated, or too isolated, they’ll begin to jump ship–no matter how beautifully the site or app is designed” (Holmes, R 2013)

This quote by Ryan Holmes, CEO of Hootsuite analyses the current status of social media users as a proliferation of disputes has arisen between two competing social media platforms Twitter, and Facebook. These two disparate platforms have restricted users from posting opponent platform content on theirs. These disagreements make users feel restricted, manipulated, and isolated, which is justified by Chris Taylor’s quote “We simply want any app we use that is owned by either Facebook or Twitter to interact seamlessly, the way they used to,”( Holmes, R 2013).

This feud falls under the phenomenon of Intellectual Property and Copyright. Lessig states in his book ‘Free Culture’“A large, diverse society cannot survive without property; a large, diverse, and modern society cannot flourish without intellectual property” (2004), relating to the importance of creativeness and being unique within your brand personality. In relation to Twitter and Facebook, the two platforms must respect each other’s ownership rights and take into consideration the Copyright and Intellectual Property laws of one another.

twitter-vs-facebook2.png

Remediation: A nodes confusion over the social media dispute between Twitter and Facebook.

The clash between Twitter and Facebook acknowledges a larger issue portrayed by Marco Arment:

“the bigger problem is that they’ve abandoned interoperability, the big networks increasingly want to lock you in, shut out competitors and make a service so proprietary that even if you could get your data out it would be useless” (Arment, M 2013)

Arment addresses a user’s ability to have control of the content on social media platforms, and the power of the highest feudal being of the platform e.g. Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook.

 

Reference List:

Arment, M 2013, Lockdown, Marco, weblog post, 3 July, viewed 31 August, <https://marco.org/2013/07/03/lockdown>

Holmes, R 2013, From Inside Walled Gardens, Social Networks Are Suffocating The Internet As We Know It, Fast Company, weblog post, 8 September, viewed 31 August, <https://www.fastcompany.com/3015418/from-inside-walled-gardens-social-networks-are-suffocating-the-internet-as-we-know-it>

Lessig, L 2004, Creators. In Free Culture: How Big Media uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Strangle Creativity, viewed 22 September, <http://www.authorama.com/free-culture-4.html>

Liveintent Video, 2015, ‘Whats a Walled Garden’, YouTube, 13 November, viewed 31 August, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQ32ggNrUsw>

techopedia, 2018, Walled Garden, Techopedia, viewed 31 August, <https://www.techopedia.com/definition/2541/walled-garden-technology>

Living your 10 year old dream on Club Penguin

As a kid of the 20th century, my experience of social networking online included playing Club Penguin, Moshi Monsters, Poptropica, and Neopets. Whilst these games all had their best attributes, the game I dedicated the most time to was Club Penguin.

Club Penguin is a computer game described as an online community where players create and customize their own penguin and go forth by completing challenges. The game allows for users to socialise and play against fellow penguin islanders in a virtual world. Club Penguin skyrocketed as one of 2 most popular computer games of 2005, starting with 15,000 users, and by March of 2005 growing to 1.4 million users (Wikipedia 2018).

Muñiz and O’Guinn recognise an online community as a “dense network of interpersonal interactions among individuals sharing the same territory as well as a set of values” (2001). Digital Ethnography (“Analysis of qualitative data gathered during the course of social research and the Internet” (Eric, T 2014-15)) is applied to the motion of online communities through the creation of a ‘Virtual World’. Nardi, Pearce, and Taylor define virtual worlds as “computer-generated physical environments that are characterised by four distinguished features” (2012) these features comprise of:

  • Giving the user a sense of worldness
  • Becoming a multiuser
  • Being a lasting user (continue to exist in a virtual world even when logged off)
  • Allowing users to embody themselves through avatar personalisation

The concept of a social community evokes a ‘feel good’ sense of human togetherness, arousing a social world that is both warm and supportive (Postill, J 2016 p.207), just like Club Penguin delivered to its users.

The work of a digital ethnographer is applied to social worlds through the acquisition of appreciation within online communities across large geographic distance (Postill, J 2016 p.240). My club penguin avatar was bright pink, I remember only connecting to fellow penguins if they were also pink or purple in colour. When playing the game, the geographic distance between my avatar and others playing at the time did not cross my mind, however, in real sense, this was a virtual world where I was connecting to the unknown on the other side of a computer screen.

Digital ethnography combines any type of social connection made online, as well as the cultures/habits built through virtual worlds. My gaming experience on Club Penguin resonates the ‘habitual’ characteristics of digital ethnographic practice. Every afternoon I would go online at 4.00pm after arriving home from school. I would communally scan the penguin islands whilst chatting on MSN with my best friend. This custom displays the social connection I shared with Club Penguin as I became obsessed with the virtual reality of my betrayal as a penguin avatar.

 

 

Reference List:

BestClubPenguinCheats, 2017, image, <http://www.bestclubpenguincheats.com/2017/03/club-penguin-waddle-on-party-2017-cheats.html>

EPOCHTIMES, 2014, image, <https://www.epochtimes.com.br/msn-messenger-sera-desativado-em-todo-o-mundo/>

Eric, T 2014-15, Digital Ethnography- Digital Social Research, p.1

Hussain, R 2014, image, <http://www.tomsguide.com/faq/id-2352565/make-house-club-penguin.html>

Muñiz,, M, O’Guinn, T 2001, “Brand Community” Journal of Consumer Research, 27 March, pp.412–32

MYMSITBLOG, 2016, image, <https://mymsitblog.wordpress.com/2016/08/21/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-virtual-communities-established-through-social-networking-sites/>

Nardi, B, Pearce, C, &Taylor, T 2012, Ethnography and the Virtual Worlds, 16 September

Postill, J 2016, “Researching Social Worlds.” In Digital Ethnography: Principles and Practices, edited by Sarah Pink, Heather Horst, John Postill, Larissa Hjorth, pp.207-240

Wikipedia 2018, Club Penguin, viewed 27 August, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Club_Penguin>